Headline 丨 Li Ganjie: State Council's report on the state of the environment and the achievement of environmental protection targets in 2018来源：节能与环保杂志 作者: 阅读：8578 网友评论0条 Updated: 2019-04-23 08:49 Source: energy saving and environmental protection of the magazine: Read: 8578 2010 0 comments
Regarding the state of the atmospheric environment, the report shows that China's air quality continues to improve and pollution has eased. Key areas have improved markedly, and heavy pollution is still frequent in autumn and winter. The treatment of air pollution is becoming more and more complicated, and it is becoming more difficult to improve air quality significantly.
Li Ganjie said that in 2018, PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing, Tianjin, Hebei, the surrounding areas, and the Yangtze River Delta region decreased by 11.8% and 10.2% year-on-year, respectively. "However, the average annual concentrations of PM2.5 in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and its surrounding areas and the Fenwei Plain exceeded the standards by 71.4% and 65.7%, respectively, and remain at high levels. Heavy pollution weather processes have occurred many times since autumn and winter."
In terms of environmental risk, the report states that the state of environmental risk in the country has remained stable and environmental risk management has been strengthened. There were 286 environmental emergencies of various types throughout the year, a year-on-year decrease of 5.3%. However, the environmental security situation is still grim, major environmental risk sources such as hazardous chemicals, hazardous wastes, and heavy metals exist in large numbers, and major environmental emergencies still occur.
Aiming at the main goals of ecological environment protection in 2019, the report proposes that the ratio of days with excellent air quality in cities at the prefecture level and above has increased to 79.4%, the concentration of cities with PM2.5 below the prefecture level and above has decreased by 2% year-on-year, and surface water has reached or better than III The proportion of similar water bodies increased to 71.3%, and the proportion of inferior V water bodies decreased to 6%. The chemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions decreased by 2%, 2%, 3%, and 3% respectively year-on-year. Unit domestic production Total carbon dioxide emissions decreased by about 3.6% year-on-year.
State Council's 2018 environmental status and
Report on the achievement of environmental protection goals
---- At the tenth meeting of the Standing Committee of the Thirteenth National People's Congress on April 21, 2019
Minister of Ecology and Environment Li Ganjie
Standing Committee of the National People's Congress:
In accordance with the provisions of the Environmental Protection Law and the arrangements of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, entrusted by the State Council, the report on the state of environmental protection and the achievement of environmental protection goals in 2018 is as follows, please review.
The past 2018 was a landmark year in the development history of China's ecological environmental protection cause. The National Ecological Environment Protection Conference was successfully held. General Secretary Xi Jinping attended the meeting and delivered an important speech. Premier Li Keqiang made work arrangements. The Party Central Committee and the State Council have made a series of major decisions and plans to strengthen ecological environmental protection, enhance ecological civilization, and build a beautiful China. In terms of concept leadership, the National Eco-Environmental Protection Conference formally established Xi Jinping's thoughts on ecological civilization, and provided direction and fundamental guidance for advancing the construction of a beautiful China and realizing the modernization of harmonious coexistence between man and nature. In terms of top-level design, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council issued the "Opinions on Strengthening Ecological Environmental Protection and Resolutely Fighting the Pollution Prevention and Control Campaign", which clearly lays out the road map, task book, and timetable for the pollution control campaign. In terms of guaranteeing the rule of law, the 13th National People's Congress passed a constitutional amendment to vote, and incorporated new development concepts, ecological civilization, and the requirements for building a beautiful China into the constitution, which provided a powerful constitutional guarantee for striving to achieve this magnificent goal. In terms of institutional reform, strengthen and improve ecological environmental protection functions, and further optimize the ecological environmental protection responsibilities of relevant departments. The newly established Ministry of Ecology and Environment will uniformly exercise the responsibilities of supervision and administrative enforcement of various types of pollution emissions from ecology and urban and rural areas, and at the same time form a comprehensive law enforcement team for ecological environment protection.
The Standing Committee of the Thirteenth National People's Congress has played an important guiding and promoting role in comprehensively strengthening ecological environmental protection and resolutely fighting against pollution. In 2018, the law enforcement inspection of the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Law was the top priority of supervision. Chairman Li Zhanshu personally served as the leader of the law enforcement inspection team and led the team to conduct field inspections. With the approval of the Party Central Committee, the Standing Committee of the Thirteenth National People's Congress has specially opened a fourth meeting to listen to and review the report on the law enforcement inspection of the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Law, and to make a "Resolution on Comprehensively Strengthening Ecological Environmental Protection and Promoting the Fight against Pollution Prevention and Control According to Law" ( (Hereinafter referred to as the "resolution"), the use of legal weapons to control pollution, and the power of rule of law to protect the ecological environment.
Guided by Xi Jinping's thoughts on socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era, all regions and departments fully implemented the spirit of the 19th National Congress of the CPC and the 2nd and 3rd Plenary Sessions of the 19th CPC Central Committee, thoroughly implemented the thoughts of Xi Jinping's ecological civilization and the spirit of the National Conference on Ecological Environmental Protection. The central government and the State Council have decided to deploy. The battle for the defense of blue sky, clear water, and pure land has begun in full swing. Significant progress has been made in the fight against pollution, and the ecological environment has improved significantly.
I. Ecological and Environmental Status in 2018
The quality of the atmosphere and water environment throughout the country has been further improved, soil environmental risks have been basically controlled, the overall ecosystem structure has been stabilized, nuclear and radiation safety levels have been consolidated and improved, and the environmental risk situation has remained stable. In general, the quality of China's ecological environment has continued to improve, showing a trend of stability and improvement, but the results are not stable, and it may be repeated with a little slack.
(1) Atmospheric environmental conditions. 121 of the 338 prefecture-level cities and above met the standard, accounting for 35.8%; the annual rate of excellent days was 79.3%, and the rate of severe pollution days and above was 2.2%; the annual average concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) was 39 micrograms / cubic Meters, exceeding the standard by 11.4%; the annual average concentration of inhalable particulate matter (PM10) is 71 micrograms per cubic meter, exceeding the standard by 1.4%; the annual average values of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO) meet the standards. It has the following characteristics:
First, the air quality continued to improve and the pollution level was reduced. The ratio of excellent days in 338 cities at the prefecture level and above increased by 1.3% year-on-year, the ratio of days with severe pollution and above decreased by 0.3% year-on-year, and cities with air quality standards increased by 22 year-on-year; PM2.5 concentration decreased by 9.3% year-on-year. Since the “Fiveth”, the cumulative decrease has been 22%; SO2 concentration has decreased by 22.2% year-on-year, NO2 concentration has decreased by 6.5% year-on-year, O3 concentration has increased by 1.3% year-on-year, and CO concentration has decreased by 11.8% year-on-year. The peak concentration, pollution intensity, duration, and impact range of severely polluted weather processes were all significantly reduced.
Second, the key areas have improved significantly, and heavy pollution is still frequent in autumn and winter. The concentration of PM2.5 in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and its surrounding areas and the Yangtze River Delta area decreased by 11.8% and 10.2% year-on-year respectively. Among them, the concentration of PM2.5 in Beijing was 51 micrograms per cubic meter, a year-on-year decrease of 12.1%. The Fenwei Plain PM2.5 concentration decreased by 10.8% year-on-year, reversing the trend of continuous deterioration since 2015. However, the annual average concentrations of PM2.5 in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and its surrounding areas and the Fenwei Plain exceeded the standard by 71.4% and 65.7%, respectively, and remained at high levels, and severely polluted weather processes occurred many times since autumn and winter.
Third, air pollution control is becoming more and more complex, and it is becoming more difficult to improve air quality significantly. Various components of PM2.5 in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and surrounding areas have different declines. Nitrate exceeds sulfate to become the main secondary inorganic component of PM2.5. At the same time, O3 concentration generally rises, nitrogen oxides and volatility. The problem of organic matter control is even more prominent. As the marginal diminishing effect of air pollution control gradually emerges, the adjustment and optimization of the industrial, energy, and transportation structure still requires a process, and it is becoming more difficult to continue to significantly improve air quality.
(2) Water environmental conditions. The national surface section of national surface water control section Ⅰ-Ⅲ water body proportion of 71%, inferior to Ⅴ water body proportion 6.7%. It has the following characteristics:
First, the quality of surface water continued to improve, with major indicators improving year-on-year. The proportion of surface water bodies Ⅰ-Ⅲ in the country increased by 3.1 percentage points year-on-year, and the proportion of inferior surface water bodies decreased by 1.6 percentage points year-on-year. The treatment of black and odorous water bodies in 36 key cities (municipalities, provincial capitals, and cities with separate plans) has a significant effect on improving the quality of the water environment. Among the 101 nationally-controlled sections involved, the proportion of Class I-III water bodies increased by 3 percentage points year-on-year, worse than Class V. The proportion of water bodies decreased by 4.9 percentage points year-on-year.
Second, the water quality in key river basins is stable and improving, and some river basins have fluctuated. The proportion of cross-sections of Class I-III water quality in the ten major river basins including the Yangtze River, Yellow River, and Pearl River increased by 2.5 percentage points year-on-year, and the proportion of cross-sections that were inferior to Class V water quality decreased by 1.5 percentage points year-on-year. Among them, the proportion of section Ⅰ-Ⅲ water quality in the Yangtze River Basin was 87.5%, which was an increase of 3 percentage points year-on-year; the proportion of section worse than Ⅴ water quality was 1.8%, a year-on-year decrease of 0.4 percentage point. The proportion of Class Ⅰ-III water bodies in the Liaohe and Songhua River basins decreased year-on-year, the proportion of inferior Class-V water bodies increased year-on-year, and water quality declined.
Third, the water quality of key lakes and reservoirs has improved, and the problems of water ecology and environment are still outstanding. Of the 111 key lakes and reservoirs under monitoring, lakes and reservoirs with excellent water quality (class Ⅰ-III water quality) accounted for 66.7%, an increase of 4.2 percentage points year-on-year; lakes and reservoirs with inferior category V water quality accounted for 8.1%, a year-on-year decrease of 2.6 percentage points. Total phosphorus is still the primary pollutant in key lakes and reservoirs. The cumulative bloom area of Chaohu Lake and Dianchi Lake increased year-on-year.
(3) State of the marine environment. The water quality of the sea areas under the jurisdiction of China maintains a good level. The area of sea areas that meet the first-class standards in summer accounts for 96.3%. The proportion of excellent water quality in the coastal waters across the country (class I and II water quality) was 74.6%, a year-on-year increase of 6.8 percentage points. The water quality of the coastal waters of the Bohai Sea is average, and the main pollution indicator is inorganic nitrogen. Among the 9 important estuary bays, the water quality of Beibu Gulf is excellent, the water quality of Jiaozhou Bay is good, the water quality of Liaodong Bay is worse, and the water quality of other estuary bays is basically stable. New types of pollution problems such as persistent organic pollutants and microplastics have gradually emerged.
(4) Soil environmental conditions. The control of soil environmental risks throughout the country has been further strengthened, and the increasing trend of soil pollution in cultivated land in some areas has been initially curbed. The environmental risks of redevelopment and utilization of contaminated plots still exist. Some of the heavy metals in the cultivated soil around the heavy non-ferrous metal mining areas have a serious problem. Soil pollution caused by illegal transfer and dumping of solid wastes and hazardous wastes cannot be ignored.
(5) Ecosystem status. The overall ecological situation in the country is showing an improvement trend. Forest coverage and grassland vegetation cover have increased steadily. The national ecological status evaluation completed in 2018 showed that there were 1,561 counties with excellent ecological environment conditions, an increase of 103 year-on-year. China's ecological environment is still fragile, and the problems of ecological degradation caused by development and construction in some areas are still serious. The general trend of decline in biodiversity has not been effectively contained.
(6) Status of nuclear and radiation safety. The national nuclear security situation is generally stable. No incidents of level 2 or above in the International Nuclear and Radiation Incident Classification Table have occurred. The incidence of radiation accidents from radioactive sources has continued to decrease, remaining stable at less than 1 in 10,000. The national radiation environment quality and the level of radiation environment around key facilities are generally good.
(7) Environmental risk status. The situation of environmental risks across the country has remained stable, and environmental risk management has been strengthened. There were 286 environmental emergencies of various types throughout the year, a year-on-year decrease of 5.3%. However, the environmental security situation is still grim, major environmental risk sources such as hazardous chemicals, hazardous wastes, and heavy metals exist in large numbers, and major environmental emergencies still occur.
Second, the achievement of ecological environmental protection goals and tasks
In 2018, the annual targets of 9 binding indicators for ecological environment protection were all fulfilled, meeting the requirements of the “13th Five-Year Plan”. The percentage of days with excellent air quality in cities at the prefecture level and above is 79.3%, which is better than the annual target of 0.3 percentage points; the concentration of cities at the prefecture level and above with PM2.5 drops by 10.4%, which is better than the annual target of 8.4 percentage points; National Surface Water Ⅰ — The proportion of Class III water bodies is 71%, which is better than the annual target of 2.6 percentage points; the proportion of Class V water bodies is 6.7%, which is better than the annual target of 0.6 percentage points; the emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides have decreased by 6.7% and 4.9% year-on-year, both Exceeded the annual target of 3% reduction; COD and ammonia nitrogen emissions decreased by 3.1% and 2.7% year-on-year, both exceeded the annual target of 2% reduction; CO2 emissions per unit of GDP decreased by 4%, better than the annual target of 0.1 Percentage points.
In the past year, various regions and departments have steadily advanced the fight against pollution, coordinated efforts to promote high-quality economic development and high-level protection of the ecological environment, and have mainly done the following.
(1) Continue to strengthen ecological environment legislation and supervision and enforcement. Relevant departments of the State Council earnestly implement the requirements of the Resolution and formulate implementation plans; implement the newly issued nuclear safety law and the newly revised water pollution prevention law and other related laws. Cooperate with the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress to formulate laws on soil pollution prevention, modify environmental impact assessment methods, environmental noise pollution prevention laws, etc., and carry out law enforcement inspections on air pollution prevention laws and marine environmental protection laws. Cooperate with the investigation of legislation on the Yangtze River Protection Law, and promote the revision of laws such as the Law on the Prevention and Control of Environmental Pollution by Solid Waste. The General Office of the State Council issued and issued the “Notice Concerning the Cleanup of Ecological Environmental Protection Laws, Regulations, and Regulatory Documents”, and each region and department completed a total of more than 11,000 related documents. Accelerate the improvement of systems for the management of hazardous waste business licenses and management of scrapped motor vehicles.
The Central Eco-Environmental Protection Supervision Inspectors of 20 provinces (regions) including Hebei were carried out in two batches, publicly notified 103 typical cases, and promoted the solution of ecological and environmental problems around 70,000 people. In response to outstanding problems in some regions and enterprises, special inspections of mobile and acupoint types were carried out. Strict ecological environment supervision and enforcement, 186,000 administrative penalty cases were implemented nationwide, and fines amounted to 15.28 billion yuan, a year-on-year increase of 32%. We severely cracked down on various types of environmental crimes, and detected more than 8,000 environmental crimes. We will implement the system of linking administrative law enforcement with criminal justice for environmental protection, and jointly supervise and supervise major cases on the spot. Coordinated the promotion of ecological and environmental public interest lawsuits. People's courts at all levels have accepted more than 1,800 environmental public interest lawsuits filed by social organizations and procuratorial organs.
(2) Comprehensively promote the defense of the blue sky. The State Council issued and implemented the "Three-year Action Plan for Winning the Defense of the Blue Sky". A Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and surrounding area air pollution prevention and control leading group will be established, a cooperation mechanism for air pollution prevention and control in the Fenwei Plain will be established, and a cooperation mechanism for air pollution prevention and control in the Yangtze River Delta region will be improved. The implementation of the "Action Plan for Tackling the Difficulties in Pollution Control of Diesel Trucks" was issued. Promote the comprehensive treatment of air pollution in key areas in autumn and winter, carry out intensive supervision in key areas of the blue sky defense war, and assign 23,000 gas-related environmental issues to local governments. The country's ultra-low-emission coal-fired generating units are about 810 million kilowatts, accounting for 80% of the total installed capacity of coal-fired power. The proportion of non-fossil energy consumption reached 14.3%. In the northern region, the number of pilot cities for clean heating in winter has increased from 12 to 35, and more than 4.8 million households have completed the management of loose coal to ensure that the people stay warm and clean in winter. Ultra-low-emissions transformation of the steel industry was launched in key areas. Strengthen comprehensive management of "scattered pollution" enterprises and clusters, and promote energy conservation and emission reduction of coal-fired boilers. The transportation of bulk materials such as coal accelerated to railway transportation, and railway freight volume increased by 9.1% year-on-year. Promote the retirement of old motor vehicles. Further expand the scope of ship emission control zones, and promote the construction and use of shore power. The country's comprehensive supply of gasoline and diesel for vehicles that meet the Sixth National Standard has achieved the "three-oil integration" of automotive diesel, ordinary diesel, and some marine oil. Strengthen regional joint prevention and control, and effectively respond to severely polluted weather.
(3) Efforts to advance the clear water defense battle. In-depth implementation of the "Water Pollution Control Action Plan". Develop and implement action plans or plans for urban black and odorous water treatment, comprehensive treatment of the Bohai Sea, Yangtze River protection and restoration, water source protection, and agricultural and rural pollution control. The environmental rectification of centralized drinking water sources in the country was promoted, and the completion rate of rectification of 6251 problems in 1586 water sources reached 99.9%. A special action for the control of urban black and odorous water bodies was carried out. Of the 1062 black and odorous water bodies in 36 key cities, 1009 eliminated or basically eliminated black and odor. The General Office of the State Council issued the Opinions on Strengthening the Protection of Aquatic Organisms in the Yangtze River. The implementation plan of the central government's incentive policy for promoting ecological protection and restoration in the Yangtze River Economic Belt was issued. Complete the renovation of 1361 illegal wharfs on the Yangtze River trunk line. The State Council issued and implemented the "Notice on Strengthening the Protection of Coastal Wetlands and Strictly Controlling Reclamation". Eleven coastal provinces have prepared and implemented pollution prevention plans for coastal waters. Carry out pilots for the Bay Length system. Strengthen the prevention and control of agricultural non-point source pollution, support 300 cities and counties to carry out chemical fertilizer reduction and efficiency demonstrations, and in-depth implementation of agricultural film recycling operations and straw treatment operations in Northeast China. Accelerate the improvement of the rural human settlements environment, summarize and promote the experience of "1000 village demonstrations, and 10,000 village renovations" in Zhejiang, and complete the comprehensive improvement of 25,000 formed villages throughout the year.
(D) Steady progress in the defense of Pure Land. Fully implement the Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Soil Pollution. Do a thorough investigation of soil pollution in agricultural land, complete sample collection and analysis and testing. Carry out investigation and rectification of the risk of contaminated arable land in the heavy metal industry, strengthen the control of soil pollution risk on construction land, and promote the pilot demonstration construction of soil pollution control. The General Office of the State Council issued and issued the "Work Plan for Pilot Construction of" No Waste City ". Promote the classification and disposal of domestic garbage and the improvement of irregular garbage storage sites. Unswervingly promote the ban on the entry of foreign garbage, and focus on cracking down on the smuggling of foreign garbage. In 2018, the national solid waste import volume decreased by 46.5% year-on-year. Strictly cracked down on the illegal transfer and dumping of solid wastes and hazardous wastes, and completed 1,304 of the 1,308 outstanding issues listed for supervision. The waste incineration power generation industry has been promoted to meet the discharge standards. All existing problems have been rectified.
(5) Vigorously carry out ecological protection and restoration. The ecological protection red line of 15 provinces including Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, the Yangtze River Economic Belt, and 11 provinces (cities) and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region was initially delineated, and 16 provinces such as Shanxi basically formed a demarcation plan. The trial of the national park system has been progressing steadily. The number of national nature reserves increased to 474. The project of returning farmland to forest and grassland and returning pasture to grassland will be implemented. Promote large-scale land greening operations as a whole, and complete afforestation and greening of 106 million mu. 1.07 million mu of degraded wetlands will be restored, and an additional 54,000 square kilometers of soil erosion control area will be added. Promote the third batch of pilot projects for ecological protection and restoration of landscapes, forests, lakes and grasses. Carry out the special action of "Green Shield 2018" Nature Reserve Supervision and Inspection.
(6) Strict supervision of nuclear and radiation safety. Carry out "Year of Implementation of Nuclear Safety Law" activities. Comprehensive implementation of the comprehensive management system for nuclear safety supervision. Strictly supervise the safety of nuclear facilities in accordance with the law, focus on the operational risks of nuclear facilities, ensure the operational safety of 45 operating nuclear power units, 19 civil research reactors and critical devices, and control the quality of 11 nuclear power units under construction. Strengthen the construction of basic capabilities for nuclear safety, and continue to promote the construction of the national radiation environment monitoring network automatic station. Carry out international cooperation in nuclear safety.
(7) Establish and improve an economic system for the development of a green and low-carbon cycle. Guidance on further deepening the reform of "decentralized services" in the field of environmental protection to promote high-quality economic development. Promote the development of green finance, implement innovations and improve opinions on the pricing mechanism for green development. Promote green packaging and green recycling, and promote green and low-carbon product certification. The “Three Lines and One Order” (the ecological protection red line, environmental quality bottom line, resource utilization online and ecological environment access checklist) of 11 provinces (cities) in the Yangtze River Economic Belt and Qinghai Province were compiled to guide and optimize the industrial layout. Revise the industrial directory adjustment guidance catalogue, and release the industrial development and transfer guidance catalogue. The annual reduction of more than 35 million tons of crude steel and the withdrawal of backward coal production capacity of 270 million tons, completed the "13th Five-Year Plan" target task in advance. The construction of resource recycling bases progressed in an orderly manner, and the energy consumption per unit of GDP dropped by 3.1% year-on-year. Promote the implementation of key green manufacturing construction projects and vigorously promote new energy vehicles. Promote the coordinated management of greenhouse gases and pollutants, and carry out various low-carbon pilot demonstrations. Actively participate in the negotiation of the implementation details of the Paris Agreement, and promote the United Nations Climate Change Conference in Katowice to reach a comprehensive, balanced, and powerful result.
(8) Speed up the implementation of ecological environment reform measures. Comprehensively promote the reform of the vertical management system for monitoring and enforcement of ecological environment agencies below the provincial level, and implement the establishment of ecological environment supervision and administrative law enforcement agencies based on river basins. Promote the construction of a national ecological civilization experimental area. Carry out reform of the compensation system for ecological and environmental damage. Full implementation of the audit of the natural resources assets of leading cadres. An action plan for establishing a market-oriented and diversified ecological protection compensation mechanism was introduced. Carry out pilot work on the preparation of balance sheets of natural resources. Promote the reform of the mandatory disclosure system for environmental information. Implemented a permit system for controlling pollutant emissions, and issued a total of more than 39,000 enterprises' emission permits in 18 industries. Implement the "Opinions on Deepening the Environmental Monitoring Reform and Improving the Quality of Environmental Monitoring Data", and notify the negative typical cases of fraudulent monitoring data in Linfen, Shanxi and other places.
(9) Further strengthen various safeguard measures. The central government has stepped up investment and arranged 255.5 billion yuan in funding for ecological environmental protection and pollution control. Make solid progress in the second national survey of pollution sources. Successfully completed the construction and renovation of surface water quality automatic stations in 1881 countries, and successfully completed the automatic monitoring of air quality. Strengthen the construction of meteorological support services for air pollution control in key areas. The current effective national environmental protection standards reached 1970 items. In-depth implementation of atmospheric pollution causes and treatment projects, long-term resident research and "one city, one policy" technical guidance for Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and surrounding areas, the Fenwei Plain and Xiong'an New District. The public supervision, report feedback and reward mechanism was improved, and the first 124 environmental protection facilities and urban sewage treatment facilities in the country were opened to the public. Carry out solid work related to the green “Belt and Road” construction and steadily promote the implementation of international environmental conventions.
We are also soberly aware that the situation of China's ecological environment protection is still grim, and there are multiple challenges faced in fighting against pollution. First, in the face of increasing downward pressure on the economy, the momentum for improving environmental protection in some places has loosened. The vague understanding that the downward pressure on the economy is simply due to excessive environmental supervision has risen, and the risk of deregulation has increased. Second, environmental governance is becoming more and more difficult to solve, and it is becoming more difficult to solve some problems. In some areas, path dependence on traditional industries still exists, and structural pollution problems are prominent. Ecological and environmental risks are still high, and environmental emergencies occur from time to time. Third, in some places and areas, the foundation for environmental governance is weak and the work is difficult. Urban-rural development and environmental governance are unbalanced, environmental infrastructure construction in rural areas is seriously lagging behind, and there are still “dirty and messy” phenomena in some rural areas. Fourth, the ecological environment team is weak, especially the lack of grassroots professionals, and the scientific, sophisticated, and informatized management needs to be improved. Fifth, the basis for the continuous improvement of the quality of the ecological environment is not yet stable, and is greatly affected by changes in natural conditions. More negative impacts caused by adverse meteorological conditions need to be offset by more and larger emission reductions. We will face up to these problems and challenges, and maintain the strategic determination to strengthen the construction of ecological civilization. We must not relax or take a "turn-around" path, maintain our strength and momentum, and solidly advance the battle against pollution.
3. Arrangements for Ecological Environmental Protection in 2019
2019 is the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China. It is a crucial year to fight against pollution and to build a well-off society in an all-round way. Eco-environment protection work will be guided by Xi Jinping's thoughts of socialism with Chinese characteristics in the new era, in accordance with the decision-making arrangements of the Party Central Committee and the State Council, adhere to positions, consolidate results, maintain determination, do not waver, do not relax, do not open up, and unswervingly and thoroughly implement Xi Jinping's thoughts on ecological civilization, unswervingly and comprehensively implement the spirit of the National Conference on Ecological Environmental Protection, unswervingly fight the pollution control battle, unswervingly promote the modernization of the ecological environment governance system and governance capabilities, and unswervingly build an iron army of ecological environmental protection to achieve Advancing in stability, taking overall planning into account, comprehensive strategy, two-handed efforts, combination of point and surface, truth-seeking and pragmatic, focusing on winning the seven landmark battles, such as the battle to defend the blue sky, strict supervision and optimization of services, guiding incentives and restraints and punishments simultaneously. Increase work and investment to further improve the quality of the ecological environment, so that the people have more, more direct and more realistic sense of gain, happiness, and security.
In 2019, the main objectives of ecological environmental protection are: to increase the ratio of days with excellent air quality to cities at the prefecture level and above to 79.4%, and to reduce the concentration of cities at prefecture level and above with PM2.5 by 2% year-on-year, and the proportion of surface water reaching or better than Class III water bodies. Increased to 71.3%, the proportion of inferior class V water bodies decreased to 6%, and the chemical oxygen demand, ammonia nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions decreased by 2%, 2%, 3%, and 3% respectively year-on-year, and the unit GDP of carbon dioxide Emissions fell by about 3.6% year-on-year.
In order to ensure the completion of the annual goals, we will focus on the following tasks.
(1) Actively promote high-quality economic development. Implement the new development concept and explore new high-quality development paths that are ecologically priority and green development-oriented. Implement major national strategies such as the “Belt and Road” construction, the coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, the development of the Yangtze River Economic Belt, the construction of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, and the integrated development of the Yangtze River Delta, create a “Xiongan model” for high-quality development, and promote ecological civilization in Hainan Construction of test area. Implement national water-saving actions. Promote the establishment and implementation of the "three fronts and one order" nationwide. Speed up the elimination of backward production capacity and resolve excess production capacity. Implement comprehensive emission standards for industrial pollution sources, and actively promote the issuance of pollution permits for key industries. Strengthen the construction of green supply chains and vigorously develop energy-saving and environmental protection industries. In-depth implementation of a national strategy to actively respond to climate change.
(2) Resolutely carry out the landmark battle of pollution prevention and attack. Winning the defense of the blue sky is the top priority, highlighting the prevention and control of key areas, key indicators, key time periods, and key areas. Solidly carry out key operations in autumn and winter in key areas. Steadily promote the management of loose coal and continue to implement clean heating. We will resolutely control the “scattered pollution” enterprises and actively promote the ultra-low emission transformation of the steel industry. Make overall plans for “oil, road, and vehicle” and strengthen pollution control of diesel trucks. Effectively respond to severely polluted weather. Implement the "Water Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan" in an in-depth manner, systematically promote water pollution prevention and control, aquatic ecological protection and water resource management, and protect and control poor water. Full implementation of urban black and odorous water treatment, comprehensive treatment of the Bohai Sea, Yangtze River protection and restoration, water source protection, agricultural and rural pollution control action plan or program. Carry out pilots for the investigation and improvement of sewage outfalls into rivers and into the sea. The three-year action to improve the quality of urban sewage treatment was initiated. Promote comprehensive environmental improvement in formed villages. Implement the Soil Pollution Control Law, continue to implement the Soil Pollution Control Action Plan, and focus on strengthening the management and control of soil environmental risks. Do a good job of integrating agricultural land detailed investigation results. Strengthen the prevention and control of groundwater pollution, and promote the comprehensive management of groundwater over-exploitation in North China. Continue to do a good job of banning foreign garbage from entering the country and promoting the reform of the solid waste import management system. Carry out the pilot project of "no waste city" and implement the action plan for the prevention and control of waste lead battery pollution.
(3) Strengthen ecological protection and restoration. Coordinate the management of landscape, forest, fields, lakes and grass systems, and accelerate the process of land greening and ecological protection and restoration. Carry out the definition of the red line of ecological protection, and push forward the construction of the red line of ecological protection supervision platform. Carry out investigation and assessment of ecological conditions in key areas such as the Yangtze River Economic Belt. Formulate measures for monitoring the ecological environment of nature reserves. Continue to implement major projects for biodiversity protection. In-depth development of demonstration of ecological civilization. Preparations for the fifteenth Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity.
(4) Ensure nuclear and radiation safety. In-depth implementation of the nuclear safety law, speeding up the revision of nuclear and radiation safety supporting regulations and standards, optimizing nuclear safety systems and mechanisms, and comprehensive implementation of national nuclear safety policies. Further standardize and strictly supervise the safety of nuclear power plants, research reactors and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Strengthen the management of radioactive materials transportation, promote the disposal and disposal of radioactive waste left over from history, and strengthen the safety supervision of uranium mining, associated mines, and electromagnetic radiation. Accelerate the construction of a radiation environment monitoring network.
(5) Promote ecological environment supervision and law enforcement. Cooperate with the law enforcement inspection and follow-up rectification of the Water Pollution Control Law and Renewable Energy Law, carefully study and handle relevant law enforcement inspection reports such as the Air Pollution Control Law and Marine Environmental Protection Law and their review opinions, continue to promote the formulation of the Yangtze River Protection Law, and promptly submit Review the draft law on the prevention and control of environmental pollution by solid waste. Accelerate the revision of administrative regulations in areas such as sewage permit management and ecological environment monitoring. Improve the inspection system at the central and provincial levels, and launch the second round of central ecological environmental protection inspections. We will further promote the reform of comprehensive administrative law enforcement of ecological environmental protection, the reform of the vertical management system for monitoring and enforcement of ecological environment agencies below the provincial level, and accelerate the establishment of river basin ecological environment supervision and law enforcement agencies. Strictly enforce the law of ecological environmental protection, and make overall arrangements to strengthen supervision. It not only urges the people to address outstanding environmental problems that are strongly reflected by the people, but also actively strengthens guidance and assistance to enterprises in pollution control.
(6) Improve the support and guarantee system. Increase investment in ecological environment governance, promote third-party governance of environmental pollution, and improve green finance and ecological protection compensation mechanisms. Basically complete the second national survey of pollution sources. We will carry out scientific and technological research in key areas such as the causes and management of air pollution and ecological protection and restoration in the Yangtze River Basin. Further improve the ecological environment monitoring system and strengthen the quality management of monitoring data. Accelerate the development and implementation of plans to meet deadlines in accordance with law in areas where environmental quality is not up to standard. Carry out research, evaluation and revision of supporting systems, standards and technical specifications related to ecological environment protection. Strengthen ecological and environmental risk prevention measures and properly respond to environmental emergencies. Strengthen publicity and education of ecological environment and guidance of public opinion, and widely mobilize and encourage public participation.
Chairman, deputy chairmen, secretary general, and members. For a long time, the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress has attached great importance to and strongly supported the work of ecological environment protection, continuously strengthened legislation, implemented supervision and law enforcement inspections, in order to improve the quality of the ecological environment and promote ecological civilization. It has made important contributions to building and building a beautiful China. We will be more closely united around the Party Central Committee with Comrade Xi Jinping as the core, with the supervision and support of the National People's Congress and its Standing Committee, further strengthen the work of ecological environment protection, resolutely fight against pollution, and promote high-quality economic development in a coordinated manner And the high level of protection of the ecological environment, celebrating the 70th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China with outstanding achievements.
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