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The last fishermen on the Yangtze River: How did 280,000 fishermen abandon the water for a 10-year ban on fishing?

来源:中国新闻周刊 作者: 霍思伊 阅读:333 网友评论0 Updated: 2019-12-11 08:45 Source: China News Weekly Author: Huo Siyi read: 333 2010 0 comments

Zhang Yuanzhou was married twice and has 7 children.

He was born in 1952. He was born on a boat in Poyang Lake and fished for life. In the early years, the fishermen didn't know what family planning was. After his first wife gave him five boys in a row, he lost his footing and disappeared. The second wife gave him a man and a daughter.

If counting from the founding of New China, he was the first fisherman in Duchang County, Jiangxi Province. Most of these fishermen are middle-aged men over the age of 40. They have not read books. Many people do not write their names, and some do not even speak Mandarin. Many fishermen's ancestors have been fishing for generations. They have no other skills than sailing, closing nets, and identifying various fish. They regard water as a field, and they do not want to leave for a lifetime, nor dare to leave.

"The fishermen are catching more and more poor, and the ecology is getting worse and worse. This is a vicious circle." Ma Yi, director of the Yangtze River Basin Fishery Administration and Supervision Office ("Changjiang Office") of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, told China News Weekly.

Now it's time to leave. In January 2019, under the overall strategy of "Great Yangtze River Protection", the state decided to implement a comprehensive ban on fishing in key waters of the Yangtze River Basin. Starting from New Year's Day in 2020, it will be stepped up and banned for ten years. Ma Yi has worked in the fishery administration system for 30 years. He lamented that the management of such a large-scale and long-term fishing ban and the withdrawal of so many fishermen are unprecedented in human history. He went to check the materials at home and abroad, and couldn't find any experience to learn from.

The Yangtze River Basin and coastal lakes run through 8,100 kilometers of water, and 110,000 fishing boats and nearly 300,000 fishermen are about to bid farewell to the Yangtze River. But how to find the way ashore, many people have no direction.

Four months and ten years

At dusk, fish are moving, and people are moving. Zhan Dinglin's knuckles in his hands were tense, his wrists were strong, and he flicked upwards, dropping the 50-meter-long fishing net in one fell swoop. The boat swayed, and he followed.

As an old fisherman who has been fishing for almost 40 years, he has rough hands. This is a pair of typical fishermen's hands. Dark brown, deep and light marks, some are scratches, some are mouths scraped by nets or iron sheets, and some are sharp in order to hook the gills of live fish when picking fish. Cut on the edges.

The temperature of the lake is low, and the temperature is only minus 2 ℃. The cold made Zhan Dinglin feel weak, and he hurriedly rubbed his two hands and put a sigh on his mouth, his breath quickly condensed into a mist. After getting off the net as usual, Zhan Dinglin would put a bench on the boat, wrap the mule, and sit down to watch the sky gradually darken. In the middle of the lake, the lights of the county town couldn't get through, and it was pure black, but he was not afraid.

Fishermen are most afraid of storms. Sure enough, the wind changed.

At the end of 2018, a message began to circulate in the aquatic brigade where Zhan Dinglin was located: the country is about to implement a comprehensive ban on fishing for a period of ten years, extending from the previous four months in the spring to the whole year. All fishermen must switch to production and go ashore, and all boats and gear are uniformly recovered and destroyed by the state.

Zhan Dinglin's aquatic brigade belongs to Duchang County, Jiujiang City, Jiangxi Province. In Duchang, of the 24 townships under the jurisdiction of the county, 21 are along the lake and the shoreline stretches 185 kilometers, involving 1/3 of the waters of Poyang Lake. Of the total population of 830,000, more than 10,000 are fishermen. For fishermen who "boat-to-home and water-to-live" all day long, water is their "land".

Fishermen are no stranger to the ban on fishing. Since 2002, in the spring breeding season, in order to allow broodstock to spawn and protect juveniles from growing up, the state has banned spring fishing in the Yangtze River Basin for a period of three months, starting from April 1 each year and continuing to 6 30th. But experts have found that fish lay eggs on a large scale in March before they ovulate from April to June. However, the fishermen's mentality of “fishing as much as possible before fishing is banned” will lead to a peak in March, which is not conducive to the reproduction of fish. Therefore, from 2016, the fishing ban period will be advanced by one month, and it will begin on March 1 each year and continue for four months.

In the spring of 2019, the news was confirmed. In January, the three ministries and commissions of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, the Ministry of Finance, and the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security jointly issued the "Implementation Plan for Banning of Fishing and Establishment of Compensation System in Key Waters of the Yangtze River Basin", which gave a clear timetable for the ten-year ban on fishing: the end of 2019 Previously, the Yangtze River aquatic biological protection area must complete a comprehensive ban on fishing and stop all productive fishing; before the end of 2020, the main rivers and important tributaries of the Yangtze River should achieve a comprehensive ban on fishing in areas other than the protected areas.

At present, there are 332 aquatic biological reserves in China. Zhao Yimin, deputy director of the Yangtze River Office, pointed out that the comprehensive ban on arrests in the Yangtze River Basin will be implemented step by step. The first to start the aquatic biological protection area will be the mainstream of the Yangtze River, important tributaries and large rivers and lakes.

According to the "Implementation Plan", the scope of the arrest includes 14 provinces and cities including Qinghai, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Gansu, Shaanxi, Chongqing, Hubei, Hunan, Henan, Jiangxi, Anhui, Jiangsu, and Shanghai. There are no legal fishing vessels in Qinghai, Gansu, Shaanxi, and Henan provinces that need to be withdrawn. The remaining 10 provinces and cities involve the withdrawal of more than 110,000 legally licensed fishing vessels, with about 278,000 fishermen.

Ma Yi, director of the Yangtze River Office, pointed out that in addition to the key waters identified in some places, there can also be autonomy to expand the arrest zone.

In Jiangxi, the schedule was advanced. According to the "Implementation Plan for Banning and Re arresting in the Key Waters of the Yangtze River Basin in Jiangxi Province" released in September 2019, it was decided to synchronize the arrests in the Jiangxi section of the mainstream of the Yangtze River with the arrest time in the province's aquatic biological reserves, one year in advance. Arrests will be banned from January 1, 2020.

Unlike other riverside provinces, Jiangxi also has China's largest freshwater lake, Poyang Lake. The arrest waters account for over 30% of the entire Yangtze River basin. The arrest work is wide, large and difficult. In the Poyang Lake District, there are 14 key counties forbidden from arresting and arresting, including more than 300 traditional fishing villages, 19,500 fishermen, and over 100,000 people.

Duchang County is designated as a provincial aquatic life reserve. According to the plan, all withdrawals must be completed before the end of the year. Zhan Dinglin's aquatic brigade, there are more than 500 households, nearly 4,000 people, 90% are fishermen. The village branch secretary announced the policy on the village committee. This time, the lake must be completely banned. Everyone actively transfers to the shore. Any difficulties can be reflected with the village. However, only more than 20 people participated in the meeting, and like many previous village meetings, the attendance was very small. But this time, it was different from the past, and the impact was too great. All the cadres in the whole brigade sent a call to ensure that every household was notified.

Soon, the province also sent people to investigate and ask Zhan Dinglin: "How many boats do you have? Tens of thousands of iron boats hit? How many nets and shrimp cages? What do you want to do in the future?" Zhan Dinglin only said, "Fish must survive People must survive. "

Prohibition and poaching

The good years in the eyes of fishermen are the "golden decade" of the 1980s. From the hardships of the 1960s and 1970s, the fishermen entered the early stage of reform and opening up when the national economy began to take off. The improvement of tools has improved the efficiency of fishing. More than double. Fishermen no longer hand-crow paddles and collect nets manually. Various horsepower motorized sailboats travel between the waters of Poyang Lake. Fishing diesel engines have also replaced the artificial push winches to start nets, and large-scale networking has begun to spread.

Fish is easy to beat and sell. In the early 1990s, fishermen's lives were much richer than those of farming farmers. During the peak season, they could earn 3,000 to 4,000 yuan a month.

But the "Golden Decade" is too short and changes are coming too fast. With the development of Shanghai Pudong in 1992 as a sign, the high-rise buildings in cities along the Yangtze River rise higher and higher. The area of woodland and grassland in the upstream has decreased significantly, and the area of lakes and wetlands in the middle and lower reaches has shrunk in a large area.

Accompanying the "Yangtze River Development" is the flooding of sand mining. Especially in the first decade of the 20th century, after the sand mining in the main channel of the Yangtze River was completely banned in 2000, Poyang Lake soon became the largest mining site in the world.

Sand mining does not seem to have much impact on fishermen, but instead makes fish better. The holes left by sand mining become puddles, some of which are tens of meters deep. During the dry season, they become natural fishing grounds, and the fish will not quickly retreat with the water. Fishermen fish in these pits, one by one. In addition, during sand mining, the large machines pulled out the sand, and the lake became turbid, and the fish could not see the road and could not escape.

But in fact, excessive sand mining has brought disaster to the lake. A paper published by the Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Poyang Lake Wetland and Watershed Research, Jiangxi Normal University, published in the Journal of Geography in 2015 showed that from 2001 to 2010, the area of sand mining in Poyang Lake reached 260.4 square kilometers, equivalent to 1955 in weight ~ 6.5 times the natural deposition of Poyang Lake since 2010. Sand mining enlarges the cross-section of the Tongjiang River, speeds up the lake's injection into the Yangtze River, advances and extends the dry season, and shortens the fishing cycle.

The fishermen knew that finding fish in sand pits meant that the fish were getting worse. Fishermen began to think of ways. Since the 1990s, every family has used the power grid. In Duchang, power grid fishing learned from Jiangsu, and married the daughters of fishermen and relatives who walked on both sides brought this technology. Compared with places like Jiangsu and Zhejiang, Jiangxi's use of power grids is a few years later, but has spread rapidly because of its amazing efficiency. Fishermen use ordinary fishing nets to fish for half a year and can only earn 100,000 yuan, while fishing on the power grid can earn 2 to 300,000 yuan in two months.

"The situation is pressing." Lin Qingshan said.

He is 42 years old and dropped out of school to help his family fish in the fourth grade. After the marriage, I have two sons and two daughters. "Like the people in the city, I also want my children to read, and the fishing village also wants to change, but the change can only depend on themselves." Fishermen are not unaware that fishing on the grid Fish is not good, but you can't catch fish without the power grid. "Children can't read without making money," Lin Qingshan was helpless.

Every night, a wire rod tied with an electrode protrudes from the bow into the water. This is a "broken offspring" fishing method. When a power grid went down, all the big and small fishes died, and those that were not picked up also died at the bottom of the lake. A few survived, the gonads were also damaged, and their reproduction ability was basically lost. Under high-voltage current, shrimp, shells, algae, and plankton also died in large numbers, and the ecological balance of the entire water area was destroyed.

The cadre of the Fishery Administration of Duchang County, Zhan Dingzhen, who has been dealing with fishermen for more than 30 years, can understand the sufferings of fishermen, but he has never relaxed in cracking down on the power grid. In recent years, cracking down on the power grid has had a good effect, but enforcement is still not difficult. Illegal fishing tools like the power grid are made by fishermen. I bought the engine, diesel engine and net on the Internet, put in two copper wires, and tied it with a rope to get into the water.

As early as the 1980s, the state has banned electric fish, fried fish, and poisoned fish. Both the Fisheries Law of the People's Republic of China and the Fishery Administration Law of the People's Republic of China expressly stipulate that the use of electric fish and other methods that destroy fishery resources for fishing is prohibited. However, for a long time, the effect of cracking down on electric fish was not good.

Like all county-level governance problems, a grass-roots dilemma in combating "cool fishing overcapture" is that in a small society of acquaintances, law enforcement and law enforcement are inextricably linked.

Several fishermen and fishery officials are frank about this. Sometimes considering the difficulties of fishermen, as long as they are not too much, the local fishery administration will open one eye and close the other. When law enforcement is carried out, violent resistance to the law is usually from foreign ships. When local fishermen are caught, they are usually pleading, because everyone knows that they cannot run away. On the other hand, fishermen are often the eyes and ears of law enforcement. When they see the arrested ship, they will inform the fishery administration as soon as possible, and the two parties actually form a "cooperative" relationship.

In addition to grid fishing, one of the more significant changes after entering the millennium is that fishermen began to catch shrimp because shrimp made more money. Shrimp cages are not expensive. They cost 15 yuan each. A catty shrimp can sell for 20-30 yuan. They can catch hundreds of catties a night and earn thousands of yuan. The fish is worthless. The catfish, which is also known as the fat fish, is less than 10 yuan per catty, and the white catfish can only sell for two or three yuan per catty.

Shrimp fishing is a seasonal activity, concentrated only in May and June, and is just in time for the spring fishing ban. Therefore, in recent years, fishermen's stealing of shrimp has increased. Lin Qingshan has calculated a book. If he earns 150,000 yuan a year, of which 120,000 yuan will be earned by shrimp alone, 30,000 yuan will be earned by fishing, and the profit of shrimp is four times that of fish. Therefore, the ten-year ban on fishing, all productive fishing practices were completely banned across the board, which also made fishermen dissatisfied.

From the perspective of restoring ecology, Lin Qingshan agreed with the fishing ban. But he was puzzled, "How do you want us to live after going ashore?" Lin Qingshan said that before fishing was banned in the spring of 2002, he could earn three to four thousand yuan a month and had to raise two elderly people and four children. After the fishing ban, the government subsidized 500 yuan per household for one year, but only for one year, and never again.

For the spring fishing ban, the state has not mandated subsidies everywhere. In practice, different localities take different approaches depending on the strength of local finances. Some cities and counties have zero subsidies. In some places, subsidies are paid per ship per month, ranging from six to seven hundred yuan and at least one to two hundred yuan.

Fishing is banned for four months every year, and the income of fishermen has dropped sharply, so there are always people who secretly fish. Fishermen will sneak into the water sooner or later when the fisherman is not at work. The boat was not driven during the poaching. Fishermen wore wetsuits and went down to the lake. They took a few small nets and fished in the mudflats of lakes and lakes. These local fishing boats could not enter. If they heard the sound of a speedboat patrolling the fishery administration, they went ashore quietly. The fishery administration was too late to catch, nor could it be caught.

But the fishermen also knew very well that if they continued to catch, they would only get worse and worse.

On board and ashore

The home of the fishermen is the boat.

Every family has at least one large, one small, and two ships. The big ships are cement ships, which have been leaning on the shore for a long time, and are used to eat and live and raise children. The captain is seventeen or eight meters long, and the occupant's cabin is only four meters, which can accommodate ten people. Adults and children squeeze together to sleep. The boat was a wooden boat, which later turned into an iron-hulled boat for fishing. It set off in the early morning and stopped in the middle of the lake. For fishermen, big ships are "houses" and small boats are "cars".

At noon, the sun was getting thick, and there was smoke from a row of boats on the shore. Zhang Yuanzhou was unlucky that day, he didn't catch a few fish, and rushed back after a net, and rushed home for lunch at noon. Most of the time for fishing is luck, but there are also rules. When the water recedes, the fish will follow the water. When the tide rises and falls, you feel that the fish is about to swim, and quickly lower the net. Fishermen's life has never been regular. They got up at three in the morning and waited until four or five when the fish woke up and went off the net. It takes 4 hours to hit a net, 2 to 3 times a day, and 3 hours between each net. If there are a lot of fish, they will continue until the evening.

In the past, fishermen had no houses on the shore and lived on board. Cooking on board is done by burning wood, burning branches and reed stalks, sometimes fishing for waste wood from other places in the lake and carefully drying. Use the fish, shrimp, and fishmongers to change the rice, oil, salt, and greens, and pickle the pickles to make the jars, which can be eaten for a long time. Among the fish you can fish, you can't afford small fish. You can eat it yourself, fried or cooked. "Eating fish feces for fishing" is the self-deprecation of fishermen.

Facing the vast lake all day, fishermen smoke and drink alcohol, and drink good spirits. Drinking can also relieve fatigue and dampness. When you are thirsty, you drink the water of Poyang Lake without filtering. At that time, the water was clear and sweet. But they didn't know that there would be parasites in the lake. This worm comes from freshwater snails. After invading the human body, the larva grows into an adult and parasites in the blood vessels. The female lays eggs here. Some worm eggs are discharged from the body with feces or urine. Other eggs remain in the body, damaging the organs, causing abdominal pain, diarrhea, and fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity.

Zhang Yuanzhou still remembers that in the 1960s and 1970s, fishermen's big stomachs were common. Many people's bodies were swollen, and pressing their fingers was a pit, which did not recover for a long time. The older generation of fishermen has a high rate of schistosomiasis infection. After the 1970s, fishermen gradually reduced these infectious diseases due to the popularity of national prevention and treatment.

At that time, many fishermen's children did not go to school. One was because they were poor, and the other was that no one managed them. Every family is a husband and wife boat. The husband sails, lowers and closes the net in front, and the wife picks the fish off the net, sorts them, and puts them in the living water tank on the deck. When the child was seven or eight years old, he had to get on the boat to help him, picking fish and weaving the net. In the days of hand-knitting nets, sitting on a boat constantly weaving, it took one month, and we could only make one meter long in one night. Girls are usually weaving. Boys learn to fish. When they grow up, they inherit fishing boats.

Zhang Yuanzhou lived on board and was captain, and sometimes went ashore to visit the houses of fishermen with houses. Since the 1980s, fishermen near Poyang Lake in Duchang County have successively saved money and built houses ashore, so they have their own village, called Qinglongzui. In 1998, dozens of households were flooded by the Yangtze River flood. The town government set aside a homestead to house fishermen, and then there was an aquatic village, which was the aquatic brigade.

It may be that the water has been floating for a long time, and the fishermen are particularly eager to own their own houses on the shore. Now, there are more and more two or three-story small buildings in Qinglongzui and the aquatic products brigade, some of which have been built for many years. After completing the first floor, it took more than ten years to build the second floor. Cover it a little, like raising a child. The exterior of the building is covered with a layer of bright tiles, which looks decent, but the house may have no money for decoration. The cement germs are exposed outside, and there is not much furniture.

Even if there is a house on the shore, except for the New Year and the fishing ban, fishermen still rarely go home and stay on board every day. Zhang Yuanzhou said that it takes a 20-minute car ride to go home from the lake.

Stay and change

When it is not dawn, Zhan Yanglin likes to go to the dock where the ship stops.

Back in September, the peak season for fishing, he parked the boat in an inner bay near Duchangyinshan Pier. There are still three months before the fishery is completely banned. Twenty ships have been stopped here. Poyang Lake suffered a severe drought this year. Just in the fall, tidal flats and grasslands have been exposed between the inner bay and the lake. Anyone who stops here knows that the boat cannot get out. In other words, they have landed ahead of time.

Compared with other fishermen, Zhan Yanglin is a lively person. He is Zhan Dinglin's older brother. Unlike his younger brother, he has always been fishing. He went to Shanghai to work at the age of 13 and has since visited Guangdong, Zhejiang, Fujian and other places. Once, the boss owed a few months' wages, and he and a few workers went to the theory and were slapped. Since then he swears that he will never look at his face and work as his own boss.

In 2008, Zhan Yanglin hit a large iron boat at the shipyard in Ma'anshan, with more than 50 people working for him. Later, I saw on TV that Poyang Lake was going to be developed, so I returned to Duchang. During the peak season, I fished, drove, sold insurance, and did various sideline businesses. I could earn thousands of yuan per month.

But in Duchang, there are not many fishermen like him. Especially the fishermen in the post-70s age group, around the age of 45, who have been fishing for a lifetime, have no other skills and are unwilling to go out to work. Asked if they could go to the construction site to work, they all shook their heads and said, "It takes the cleverness of the wrist to fish, and it takes all the energy to move the bricks. It can't be done."

Zhan Yanglin commented on these people, and his mind couldn't turn around, and he couldn't keep up with the times. "I can't wait to change jobs, give me some money, and I can do something else."

In fact, fishermen also know that fishing is not a long-term solution, and they are unwilling to continue fishing with their children. Zhan Yanglin said that fishing is too hard, and he hoped that the children would go out of the fishing village by reading.

But for fishermen, even if they are willing to switch labor, it is very difficult.

Ma Yi, director of the Yangtze River Office, pointed out to China News Weekly that this group of fishermen is very special. They are old, fishing for generations, and low in education. Some people do not speak Mandarin, and it is difficult to retire from production. And the freedom to fish, some fishermen only need to work for five or six months a year, often earning 200,000 to 300,000 yuan, and live well. It would be difficult to accept them if they were allowed to go to ordinary jobs and not earn much.

"The fishermen are not completely poor, have a good life, and are relatively free, so it is difficult to resettle when they exit, and many of the existing policies cannot be put in place." Ma Yi knows the fishermen's mentality very well. The requirements of the job are to make more money, invest less, and save effort. Therefore, many fishermen will ask for an unreasonable price when they ask for withdrawal. "If the government meets their needs 100%, the ban on fishing will not be possible."

However, he also suggested that from another perspective, these fishermen have made sacrifices, so the government should not only consider letting them out, but also focus on employment and entrepreneurship assistance. The general principle of withdrawal work is: It is concluded that it is stable, that is, "do not return to the rivers and lakes." You have to live well, that is, to be able to find employment and earn money.

Every fisherman has different plans. After Zhan Dinglin hadn't thought about it, he had a typical fisherman's typical optimism, which was worth it. There is still a month before the full ban on fishing, and he is still insisting on fishing, "It takes one day to play."

Lin Qingshan thought about setting up a travel company in the future to drive tourists on the Poyang Lake for sightseeing. In the spring of last year, he registered the company. After the business license was approved, he got stuck in the maritime bureau. If you want to drive a speedboat, you need to have a water transport qualification certificate. After one year, the certificate has not come down.

Zhang Yuanzhou wanted to contract a fish pond for aquaculture. But he was worried that there were always people stealing fish from the fish ponds in the county, and the contracting fees were rising, and he often had to pay the rent for 20 years at a time.

"In Duchang County, fishermen have switched production spontaneously in recent ten years, but the success rate is less than 5%." Said Zhan Dingyu, a cadre of the Fishery Administration of Duchang County. Among these people, 20% went out to work and more people chose to contract Fish ponds engage in aquaculture.

"This is a process, and the environment will force fishermen to change slowly," he said.

Identity and money

According to the deployment, at the two time points of January 1, 2020 and January 1, 2021, it is necessary to achieve a comprehensive and "clear lake" and "clear river".

There is still one month before the full arrest is banned at the end of the year. The specific compensation standards in Duchang County have not been announced, and the agreement has not been signed. Zhan Dinglin is somewhat anxious.

As early as March of this year, the county fishery administration had asked him to fill out a form, which was detailed: Is there a fisherman certificate? Is there land? How many ships are there? The length, construction time and condition of the ship? What nets are there and how many shrimp cages? Are you insured for total household income and total expenses in 2018?

This is the first step for the fishermen to go ashore-establish a file to establish a card, find out the base number, and issue subsidies accordingly.

Wang Yuanbao, director of the Fisheries and Fisheries Division of the Hunan Provincial Department of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, pointed out to China News Weekly that during the process of establishing a file and establishing a card, many difficulties were encountered, because the identity of fishermen is complex, and the verification of their identity requires multi-sectoral comparison. For example, the hukou and social security need to find the civil affairs department, and the land situation needs to be checked on the land information system, which takes time and effort.

In March 2019, at the request of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, the "Thematic Investigation Group on the Key Waters of the Yangtze River Basin", composed of the Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, came to Xiangyin County and Hanshou County, Dongting Lake District, Hunan Province to conduct a survey. They also found that The identification of subsidy objects is difficult.

In actual fishing production, the composition of fishermen is very complicated. There are both professional fishermen who have been living for a long time and part-time fishermen who both fish and work and work in agriculture. Among professional and part-time fishermen, there are both certificate holders. There are also undocumented fishermen engaged in fishing operations; among the licensed fishermen, there is also a fisherman group with multiple households in the fishing license; among the unlicensed fishermen, there are still some people who are unable to apply for a permit because of overage, but are still engaged in fishing 60-70 year old fishermen working.

The research team pointed out that there are a large number of special fishermen groups such as part-time fishermen, undocumented fishermen, and multi-family fishermen with one permit. If the subsidy target and the withdrawal policy are not implemented properly in the Yangtze River ban on fishing, it may cause some fishermen groups to Dissatisfaction has brought resistance to the arrest of the Yangtze River.

Duchang County Fishery Bureau cadre Zhan Dingzheng pointed out to China News Weekly that it is difficult to grasp whether it is necessary to include subsidy policies for various fisherman groups other than certified fishermen. If included, should they only recycle their boats and gear, or do other policies like those for certified fishermen, such as transitional subsidies or social security measures. This requires a large capital investment.

His troubles are not uncommon everywhere. In some places, the preliminary work was not completed in a timely manner, which slowed down the overall progress, and the subsidy policy was not promulgated.

Regarding the funding arrangements for the withdrawal, early this year, the "Implementation Plan for Banning and Establishing a Compensation System in Key Waters of the Yangtze River Basin" jointly issued by several ministries and commissions requires: temporary fishing subsidies, social security, vocational skills training and other related work places Funding needs are mainly addressed by localities in combination with existing policy funding channels. At the same time, the central government has adopted a combination of one-time subsidies and transitional subsidies to give appropriate support to the arrest ban.

The document makes it clear: stick to the local principle, and the central government will give appropriate compensation. But the obstacles to retreat are still money. The retreat involved nearly 300,000 fishermen and 110,000 boats in 10 provinces (autonomous regions and municipalities). Many withdrawal areas are located in poor counties. It is very difficult for local finances to squeeze out this large amount of money for repurchasing ships, fishing gear, and issuing transitional subsidies.

Wang Yuanbao said that in Hunan last year, a provincial retreat conference was held, and cities and counties said that they had financial difficulties. "It's important to see if you can squeeze out the money." He said that the ten-year ban on fishing is a national policy, and it should be treated as a political task and promoted by the number one.

In order to promote the ban on arrests and withdrawals, Hunan Province has provided 400 million yuan at one time, and directly provided them to the grassroots according to the importance of the withdrawal missions in various places. Taking Ziyang District of Yiyang City as an example, it has been calculated that the average compensation for a ship is 20,000 yuan per household, the transitional life compensation is 15,000 yuan per household, the repurchase fishing license is 2,000 yuan, and the early withdrawal reward is 1,500 yuan. Each household has a total of 110,500 yuan for retirement. In addition, according to Hunan's standards, fishermen ashore can receive a subsidy of 200 yuan per month for two years. Other provinces, such as Anhui, have also decided to allocate 200 million yuan in 2020 to earmark the ban.

At present, the preliminary work on the arrest and withdrawal has been carried out for nearly a year. From the feedback provided by the provinces to the Yangtze River Office, localities have generally reflected that there are difficulties in supporting the withdrawal of local funds, especially in some central and western regions. Reward funds are limited.

For example, Hubei Province has made it clear that one of the difficulties in withdrawing is the lack of financial strength in some localities, the delay in the implementation of the ban on fishing plans, and the delay in the dismantling of fishing vessels, affecting the overall progress of the province. They are also worried that there are differences in compensation in different regions of the same river, which will cause fishermen to be dissatisfied.

The Jiangsu Provincial Department of Agriculture and Rural Affairs responded: "The central government's subsidy for fishing vessels retreating from the mainstream of the Yangtze River is not only low (28,800 yuan / ship), but it does not distinguish the size of fishing vessels and only subsidizes them based on vessels, which is extremely unfavorable to our province." Provincial and local financial pressures are huge, especially in northern Jiangsu, where it is difficult to afford a large amount of subsidy funds. "Lack of water fishermen will be resettled by local governments with reference to landless farmers. I am afraid it will be difficult to implement them."

Han Changfu, Minister of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, previously stated that the central government has arranged 9.2 billion yuan in subsidy funds to be allocated for implementation each year, but the funding gap is still large compared to the task of a comprehensive ban on arrests. He emphasized that the governments of cities, counties and counties along the Yangtze River must take the initiative to strengthen their support and guarantees. "Without the full investment of real gold and silver, it is difficult to achieve practical results in the arrest ban."

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