How to crack the strange circle of chemical companies' security rectification?来源：《瞭望》新闻周刊 作者: 阅读：371 网友评论0条 Updated: 2019-12-10 11:47 Source: "Outlook" Newsweek Author: Read: 371 2010 0 comments
During the National Day, an industrial production fire broke out in a chemical park in a city in the Yangtze River Delta. A driver unfamiliar with the chemical business climbed into the tank and died on the spot due to improper handling of static electricity.
"The safety management and control of the chemical industry, especially the hazardous chemicals industry, has very high requirements for specialization. If one link is not handled properly in the emergency treatment process, secondary disasters may occur, and even life-threatening." One is responsible for the safety management of the chemical terminal Cadres told reporters of Newsweek.
▲ Scrutiny Wang Pengtu
In recent years, safety accidents of chemical companies in China have been prone to occur frequently. Since the beginning of this year, many chemical companies in Jiangsu, Shandong, Guangdong, Hunan, and Inner Mongolia have exploded. The source of the explosion involved workshops, reactors, tanks, test equipment, sewage treatment plants and other links. The "3.21" catastrophic accident in Xiangshui, Jiangsu, with the lessons of 78 dead and 76 seriously injured, sounded the alarm for the safe production of dangerous chemicals industry. Some enterprises have weak emergency response capabilities. In the event of a dangerous situation, the response to the situation is weak, causing heavy losses to people's lives and property, affecting social stability and local economic development.
A senior executive of a chemical company responsible for production safety told reporters that some companies are now shutting down to cope with inspections, making it difficult to find problems because enterprise production is dynamic and hidden risks are also dynamic.
"Frequent accidents, grass-roots cadres are very busy, from one company to another, they run non-stop; the person in charge of the company is very nervous, afraid of fines, suspension of production, and closure." Safety Supervision Bureau of Hai'an City, Jiangsu Province Former Deputy Commissioner Su Jing said how to cure the stubborn disease of "safety, scars and pain", how to eliminate the fluke of "no coffin, no tears", and how to get rid of the "accident-investigation and investigation-re-occurrence-re-investigation-investigation The strange circle has a long way to go.
Interviewed professionals urged that chemical industry is the basic industry of the national economy. It is necessary to adhere to "essential safety, green high-end", and instead of using large sums of money to "repair the dead", it is better to use small sums of money to "plan ahead" to prevent accidents.
What's the problem
Many interviewees believe that there are deep-seated reasons for the frequent occurrence of safety accidents in chemical companies.
At the beginning of the development of the chemical industry, there were places to attract investment. This kind of development concept of "get on the bus first and then replenish the ticket and rely on safety and environmental protection" has led to some places not keeping to the bottom line of safety and environmental protection. For example, some chemical industrial parks in China have become the clusters of intermediate product enterprises with the highest pollution and the highest safety risks. The production processes are backward, the pollution is serious, and the hidden risks are great.
Some chemical company officials report that the lack of safety supervision standards often makes enterprises confused. A chemical company needed to install a gas alarm device as required, but the opinions of the three dial experts on the installation position of the alarm device were inconsistent. In the end, the company adopted a "compromise" approach. In a provincial expert group inspection, when it was determined whether it was a major hidden danger, the two provincial experts quarreled on the spot. Industry safety standards are lagging and confusing, and safety regulations are changed day by day and willfulness is increased, resulting in chaos in security supervision, and enterprises are at a loss.
“The chemical industry has high professional requirements. Each segment of the fine chemical industry has different requirements for safe production. The cadre business is not sophisticated, and it is difficult to master complex safety knowledge.” The aforementioned cadre in charge of chemical terminal operation safety told reporters that sometimes they felt dangerous The chemical storage tanks are bright and new without safety problems, but there are many hidden dangers when they are inspected. I think that the rusty dangerous chemical storage tanks may have problems, but they have been proved to be safe.
In some areas, safety supervision is superficial and has not been implemented. Su Jing said that in some cities, more than 370 work safety documents have been issued in a year; a company's head of the company participated in 4 work safety meetings during the day; a county-level safety supervision bureau submitted 12 statistical reports a day. However, instructions for work safety can only be effective if they are rooted, not from government to government, from documents to documents, from meetings to conferences.
There is also a problem of weakening corporate responsibility. A security expert told reporters that some companies felt that "I did not do well, and the relevant departments will ask experts to help me check it." Enterprises do not actively find hidden safety hazards, the production process will be out of control, and in some places, coping with established business practices.
Interviewed experts pointed out that 0 points for government supervision + 100 points for the implementation of main responsibility = 100 points for safe production; 100 points for government supervision + 0 points for the implementation of main responsibility = 0 points for safe production. No matter how strict the government's supervision is, there will be more meetings, documents, inspections, and law enforcement. If corporate actions are not implemented in place, safety accidents will still occur frequently.
How to force
"Some research believes that chemical industry is the parent industry, and each US $ 1 generated will drive downstream US $ 3-4 production value." Therefore, in the opinion of Ma Jianping, vice president of Jiangsu Chemical Industry Association, the key to the development of the chemical industry is safety, greenness and high quality.
Interviewees told reporters that in the hazardous chemicals industry in some regions of China, there are small and scattered enterprises, large numbers of companies, lack of safety standards, and poor implementation of professional supervision and corporate security responsibilities.
Industry insiders point out that the chemical industry is highly practical. To restructure the modern industrial safety system, it is necessary to establish a pool of experts with practical experience, to make inquiries into the safety of existing enterprises, speed up the process of standard supply, and improve the investigation and accountability mechanism. To improve the safety management level of the enterprise.
Su Jing believes that the rude method of "turning off and stopping" is not advisable, and there must be no eagerness to "get a cake and dig a well with a spade". At present, formulating safety standards and safety management specifications by industry, equipment, and process is a top-level design and urgent task. Investigation and research must be carried out with both high standards and strict requirements, as well as being grounded and capable of implementation. It is continuously optimized in practice.
Experts believe that it is necessary to establish comprehensive professional standards such as enterprise technology, production, management, and emergency response to the characteristics of products in hazardous chemical industries, which can be established under the guidance of industry associations and implemented by government supervision.
"For the flammable and explosive hazardous chemicals industry, HAZOP should be used to diagnose existing companies and speed up the standard supply process." A chemical company in northern Jiangsu told reporters that many The hidden dangers of serious and serious safety accidents are concentrated in the fields of fine chemicals such as dyes, medicines, pesticides, etc. It is possible to organize the person in charge of newly retired companies with experience in production safety management to enrich the talent pool. On the one hand, use the HAZOP method to provide the pulse for all hazardous chemical companies Base number, can be rectified in place to speed up the process of resumption, can not be rectified in place and shut down completely. On the other hand, speed up the process of standard setting and supply, so that enterprises can fulfill their main responsibilities, and the regulatory authorities can rely on them.
Su Jing believes that the fundamental purpose of the accident investigation is to find out the real cause of the accident, learn lessons from it, and timely modify industry standards and management measures to prevent similar accidents from happening again.
A grassroots cadre interviewed in Jiangsu believes that it is not possible to rely solely on administrative forces and market games. Encourage the introduction of third parties such as expert teams with practical experience in the industry to participate in supervision.
The above-mentioned person in charge of a chemical company in Northern Jiangsu believes that enterprise executives with production management experience can be organized to enrich the expert team, consider safety from the four dimensions of process, equipment, materials and personnel, and urge the enterprise to consider both intrinsic safety and process safety. Through the hidden dangers to find the management problems behind, and solve the problem from the system.
In Jiangsu, detailed requirements and standards for chemical industry safety improvement work formulated and implemented by emergency management departments are being promoted. In the coming year, the Jiangsu State Council ’s Jiangsu Work Safety Supervision and Supervision Working Group will focus on the chemical and hazardous chemicals industries.
Su Jing suggested that for the indifferent safety awareness of frontline employees, poor work habits, lack of safety knowledge, labor discipline, and non-compliance with operating procedures, we can provide the right medicine, grasp the education of good work habits of frontline employees, and strengthen training. Systematic and targeted.
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