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Strengthening the docking of the bay-length system and the river-length system to achieve the co-management of land and sea

来源:中国环境报 作者: 阅读:4917 网友评论0 Updated: 2019-05-21 10:29 Source: China Environment News Author: Read: 4917 2010 0 comments



Yang Jing, deputy director of the South China Institute of Environmental Sciences' Offshore Marine Environment Research Center of the Ministry of Ecology and Environment, has extensive experience in the control of land and sea pollution systems, environmental supervision of direct discharge into the sea, and estuary and offshore pollution risk assessment. Participate in the whole process of cleanup and rectification of sewage outfalls into the sea and the top-level design of the special action for the sewage outfalls in the Bohai Sea.

The governance experience of the Chesapeake Bay in the United States can be used for reference. They set up a remediation executive committee and formulated the Chesapeake Bay Agreement. After clearing the targets, each region will implement them separately, and formulate regional emission reduction and remediation measures.

China Environment News: At present, where do you have better experience in controlling the mass flow of land-based pollutants? Do you have mature experience abroad? What other suggestions do you have for the treatment of marine pollutants in China?

Yang Jing: China ’s terrestrial sources have better pollution control in the sea, including: Jiulong River, Xiamen Bay, Fujian Province, involving Xiamen, Zhangzhou, and Longyan; Taizhou, Zhejiang; and Tianjin.

In foreign countries, the experience of the Chesapeake Bay governance in the United States can be used for reference. They set up a remediation executive committee and formulated the Chesapeake Bay Agreement. After clearing the targets, each region will implement them separately, and formulate regional emission reduction and remediation measures.

The Seto Inland Sea of Japan was once known as the "End of the Dead Sea". Later, the government and all parties worked together to implement the "Seto Inland Sea Environmental Protection Law" to restrict factory drainage and build and improve the sewer network. The total amount of nitrogen and phosphorus emissions was restricted.

In view of China's marine pollution control work, I believe that the next step should be to rationalize the division of labor and cooperation mechanisms of various ministries and commissions on marine ecological environmental protection as soon as possible to build a marine environmental protection pattern.

While attaching importance to pollution control, marine ecological conservation must also be strengthened. The successful governance experience of foreign Gulfs is not only controlling the source and reducing emissions, but also attaches great importance to ecological protection and restoration.

In addition, scientific and technological support should be further strengthened, including absorbing technical experts and scientific researchers to participate in decision-making, strengthening scientific and technological support in the process of formulating technical standards, governance plans and governance technologies, attaching importance to comprehensive investigation and assessment of ecological environment, and applying advanced scientific methods Such as investigation and monitoring, traceability, etc.

◆ Reporter Liu Wei

The Ministry of Ecology and Environment has recently organized a national marine ecological environment protection work conference. The meeting emphasized that the current and future period is a critical period for fighting pollution, fighting for victory, and building a well-off society in an all-round way. It is also a critical period for deepening the reform of the Party and state institutions and promoting the deepening of marine ecological environmental protection. What are the current difficulties in marine pollution control? What other system guarantees are needed for the implementation of the "Long Bay System" proposed at this meeting? In this regard, this reporter interviewed Yang Jing, deputy director of the South China Institute of Environmental Sciences' Offshore Marine Environment Research Center, Ministry of Ecology and Environment.

China Environment News: We know that comprehensive governance of the Bohai Sea is one of the seven major battles. What is the status of land-based pollutants entering the sea in the current marine governance work, including the Bohai Sea? Is this pollution source the biggest pollution source in the ocean at present?

Yang Jing: Indeed, the monitoring of land-based pollutants entering the sea by the Ministry of Ecology and Environment mainly involves two types: one is the river that enters the sea; the other is the in-line pollution source. In general, the pollution pressure from terrestrial sources into the sea is relatively large.

According to the 2017 Environmental Quality Bulletin for Offshore Waters issued by the Ministry of Ecology and Environment, the water quality monitoring results of 195 river sections across the sea show that the water quality of rivers entering the sea in the country has remained stable. Among them, 13 water quality sections are of type V, accounting for 6.7%; 41 types of water quality sections are of inferior quality, accounting for 21%.

In terms of in-line sea pollution sources, in 2017, monitoring of 404 daily in-line sea pollution sources with daily sewage discharges greater than 100 tons found that the amount of in-line sea water pollution sources in the country reached 6.36 billion tons, a year-on-year increase.

From these two sets of data, it can be seen that rivers entering the sea are the main source of pollutants entering the sea. So, is the pollution source into the sea the largest pollution source in the ocean at present? In fact, from research at home and abroad, 80% of marine pollution comes from land. The transfer of land-based pollutants to the ocean is the most important source of marine pollution.

For coastal areas, where the river entering the sea and the bay area where the river estuary is located are in the same administrative area, the head of the river and the head of the bay can be held by the same administrative leader, which is conducive to the realization of co-governance of land and sea and improves efficiency.

China Environment News: What are the current difficulties in promoting the "Long Bay System"? What areas need to be strengthened?

Yang Jing: The implementation of the bay-length system is conducive to solving the problem of pollution in the bay. However, during the pilot implementation of the bay-length system, some problems were encountered.

First, the legal positioning and implementation mechanism of the Bay-Long system have not yet been established. The implementation of the Bay Length System currently has no legal status and there is no corresponding implementation mechanism to match it. Its operational effect depends more on administrative pressure, the importance of party and government leaders, and the scientific nature of decision-making. It is difficult to achieve long-term effects.

Second, the basic work for the implementation of the Bay Length System is weak. The gulf has a large area, and is affected by multiple administrative regions, with complex factors. In order for the bay-length system to really work, it should be a combination of the symptoms and the root causes. The problem of root cause needs to understand the quality of the ecological environment in the Bay Area, understand the main factors that influence the quality of the ecological environment in the Bay Area, where they come from, and how much. These basic conditions have not been accurately grasped, and will inevitably affect the scientific nature of the bay-length decision, and then the implementation effect of the bay-length system.

Third, public participation is low. At present, the promotion and implementation of the bay-length system mainly depends on the government and mainly on administrative means.

In this regard, I have the following suggestions:

The first is to strengthen the perfection of laws, regulations, and mechanisms, to study and determine the positioning and legal duties of the bay-length system, and to speed up the design of the bay-length system.

It is suggested to include the content of the bay-length system in the amendment of the Marine Environmental Protection Law and related marine environmental protection regulations to provide conditions for the implementation of the bay-length system. For example, the river length system has been explicitly written into the Water Pollution Control Law, and local regulations have also incorporated the relevant content of the river length system to lay the foundation for the formation of a long-term mechanism. At the same time, at the national level, work out the design of the Taiwanese long-term system, and clarify the authority, responsibilities, goals, tasks, assessment and supervision of the Gulf Chief.

The second is to strengthen the docking with the river system and fully realize the co-governance and management of land and sea. Govern the river before governing the river, and govern the land before governing the river.

In this regard, it is recommended that the bay chief not only take overall responsibility for the ecological and environmental quality of the bay area, but also be responsible for and coordinate the bay length system and the river length system. For coastal areas, where the river entering the sea and the bay area where the river estuary is located are in the same administrative area, the head of the river and the head of the bay can be held by the same administrative leader, which is conducive to the realization of co-governance of land and sea and improves efficiency. At the same time, in order to do a good job of coordinating and linking the goals of river governance and bay management, it is necessary to strengthen the linkage with the system of river governors and promote the establishment of a system of joint conferences and information sharing systems for river governors.

The third is to strengthen the planning of basic work and improve the scientific nature of decision-making. Attach importance to and strengthen the basic data of the ecological environment, including the collection and follow-up evaluation of the quality of the ecological environment, ecological conditions, pollution surveys, and strengthen scientific research on the ecological management of the Gulf.

The fourth is to fully mobilize the strength of all parties to participate and play a synergistic role. Explore and guide enterprises and NGOs to participate in environmental governance and ecological protection in the Gulf. Give full play to the role of the masses and the media in supervising and propagating, and promptly and quickly identify problems and feedback on rectification.

Rivers assess ammonia nitrogen, while offshore coastal waters assess inorganic nitrogen. Often, the ammonia nitrogen of the river entering the sea has reached the standard, but the total nitrogen concentration or total amount is very large, because the river entering the sea has not reduced it well.

China Environment News: Is it a top priority for marine pollution control to significantly reduce the amount of land-based pollutants entering the sea and reduce the pollution of water bodies by rivers entering the sea? What are the current difficulties in completing this task? Is it difficult to build sewage pipelines and raise funds, or is the local government not paying enough attention?

Yang Jing: Rivers entering the sea are the top priority for marine pollution control, because this is the largest component of marine pollution sources. Since the implementation of the "Ten Water Regulations", China has been vigorously promoting the reduction of pollutants entering the Haihe River. However, there is a relatively large difficulty in completing this task, that is, the regulation of rivers entering the sea has not been effectively connected with the improvement of water quality in offshore waters.

The reduction of pollutants in the river reclamation work is more concerned about the two concentration indicators of chemical oxygen demand and ammonia nitrogen. Correspondingly, these two indicators are also of concern for the effluent requirements of sewage treatment plants and the discharge standards of industrial enterprises. In other words, the total nitrogen contributed by the river is not actually controlled.

But for the ocean, the standard for seawater quality is inorganic nitrogen. Rivers assess ammonia nitrogen, while offshore coastal waters assess inorganic nitrogen. Because the water quality indicators of the two are not well connected, such a phenomenon often occurs: the ammonia nitrogen of the river entering the sea has reached the standard, but the total nitrogen concentration or total is very large, because the river entering the sea has not reduced it well. From rivers to oceans, the contribution of total nitrogen to inorganic nitrogen is very large, so there is no obvious or better improvement in water quality in offshore waters.

Another difficulty is the improvement of the polluted water bodies of rivers entering the sea. Point sources are better, but non-point sources, especially agricultural non-point sources such as breeding and planting, still need efforts.

The completion of pollution control tasks is not only a matter of supporting sewage pipelines or difficulties in raising funds. In fact, how to fully reuse the sewage in the environment, or how to collect the sewage in a concentrated way, and then discharge it after the treatment is up to the standard is a difficult problem. At present, everyone is actively exploring and promoting good collection methods and reuse methods. Of course, there are some places with good experience to learn from, but most of the places have more difficulties in this regard.

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