Promote refined management of domestic waste classification来源：中国环境报 作者: 阅读：21683 网友评论0条 Updated: 2017-08-10 09:33 Source: China Environment News Author: Read: 21683 2010 0 comments
With reference to international experience, the current indirect unified charging method can be changed, and a personalized direct charging mechanism for excessive price increases and reduction awards can be established. The charging standards should be reasonably determined based on factors such as waste disposal costs, household income, and financial subsidies.
◆ Yang Yang
Waste sorting is an extensive, systematic, long-term, and iterative task involving the safety of urban operations. At the end of 2016, General Secretary Xi Jinping stressed at the fourteenth meeting of the Central Finance and Economics Leading Group that the general implementation of the garbage classification system has a bearing on the improvement of the living environment of more than 1.3 billion people.
Since the establishment of eight national waste separation and collection pilot cities in Beijing and Shanghai in 2000, after years of active exploration, waste separation and treatment has achieved certain results. However, compared with international standards and public expectations, there is still a large gap. The author believes that the following three problems still exist in garbage classification and treatment:
First, the situation of garbage disposal is becoming increasingly severe, and the source reduction is urgent. Taking Beijing as an example, the amount of domestic waste generation has increased at a rate of more than 7% in recent years, and it has surged by 10.5% in 2016.
Second, the subject of garbage classification is weak, and the social mobilization effect is not good. For a long time, due to the lack of mandatory requirements for residents' waste classification and the implementation of accurate, effective, sustainable incentives and punishment measures, the actual waste classification work was completed by the picking army and the sorters, and the current classification system was in the form.
Third, the classification and treatment are extensive, with different standards, insufficient professionalism, and improper connection. Because there is no unified and compulsory operating standard for key links such as classification, collection, transportation, and processing, many people are caught in the strange circle of "divide first and then mix", "mixed and mixed transport", and "mixed and mixed transport". Therefore, there is an urgent need to change the original extensive classification and processing model to achieve refined management of waste classification.
Accurate attribution: effective implementation of the main responsibility of all parties
According to the principle of "who pollutes, who is responsible", the main responsibility of the garbage is accurately divided from the source of the garbage.
First, we need to improve the reward and punishment system for garbage classification. The current "secondary sorting" -based classification model does not address the symptoms and is not conducive to cultivating citizens' environmental consciousness from the source. It is inconsistent with strategies such as green development and a low-carbon society. It is urgent to use sophisticated management methods to establish a waste classification with equal reward system.
Second, we need to change the way we charge for garbage. With reference to international experience, the current indirect unified charging method can be changed, and a personalized direct charging mechanism for excessive price increases and reduction awards can be established to solve the problem of source reduction. The charging standards should be reasonably determined based on factors such as the cost of garbage disposal, residents' income, and financial subsidies. Special funds are dedicated to improving waste classification and treatment facilities.
In addition, it is necessary to clarify the responsibilities of various enterprises for the source notification of the garbage to which the goods belong. Enterprises can be forced to indicate the garbage classification method of each part of the product on the packaging, so that they assume the corresponding mission of education.
Precise connection: smooth operation of the entire system of guarantee systems, equipment and personnel
Local governments can set up a dedicated waste classification management department, which is responsible for formulating classification standards and classification operation specifications, etc., in order to promote the transformation of the “emphasis-end, light-end” garbage management model, move the border forward, and effectively mobilize the public, property, and enterprises Participation in garbage classification management.
In the process of waste classification, recycling, transportation, and treatment, it is necessary to achieve seamless and precise connection of systems, equipment, and personnel to form an integrated full-scale classification and processing industry chain. We can learn from international experience and establish a recycling system for different types of garbage at different times and places on the basis of compulsory classification of garbage to ensure that various types of garbage "do not land". Upgrade waste sorting and recycling vehicles to achieve accurate collection, transportation and processing.
Precise deployment: Effectively coordinating top-level design strategies and measures tailored to local conditions
At present, the "two-network integration" of garbage classification and recycling resources utilization provides a good opportunity for transformation of garbage classification and management. It should be deployed from the top to promote waste classification to a new level.
Intensify the formulation of industry standards for renewable resources recycling and subsidies for low-value recyclables, and promote the construction of bases and facilities for co-processing of waste resources. Further play the role of "Internet + recycling", promote the transformation and upgrading of traditional recycling industry through APP, automatic recycling machine and other methods, and increase the enthusiasm of residents in waste classification. At the same time, we must scientifically grasp the relationship between top-level design and local conditions. While promoting local exploration experience, we should further integrate resources, establish and improve waste classification laws and regulations, formulate precise and detailed classification, recycling, transportation, and disposal rigid standards, clarify market access and exit mechanisms for relevant practitioners and enterprises, and guide waste. The classification industry is developing towards intensification, standardization and high value.
Lean management: use PPP to promote waste sorting and speed up
Introduce market mechanism, promote professional and innovative operation of waste sorting, and improve waste sorting efficiency.
On the basis of improving the standards and specifications of waste classification, collection, and transportation, local governments should encourage enterprises to participate in waste classification management in various forms such as PPP, increase technical innovation in food waste and other renewable resources, and participate in related Project construction and operation management. Garbage classification and treatment are the common responsibility of the whole society. Various ways should be used to stimulate social vitality and form the joint force of co-governance of garbage.
Author unit: Department of Public Management Teaching and Research, Party School of Beijing Municipal Committee of the Communist Party of China
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