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Waste treatment with magnetized air pyrolysis

来源: 作者: 阅读:10005 网友评论1 Updated: 2008-12-16 16:26 Source: Author: Read: 10005 User Reviews 1

Provided by : Hongkou District Modern Manufacturing Technology Association

This project proposes a novel pyrolysis technology for solid organic waste (garbage) treatment. Pass a small amount of magnetized air in the pyrolysis furnace to partially combust the combustibles and the combustible products produced by the pyrolysis of the solid waste being treated. The heat generated will continuously decompose the organic substances in the solid waste. Since the magnetized air indirectly magnetizes the object to be processed, the energy required for pyrolysis is reduced, and the pyrolysis efficiency is improved. Therefore, pyrolysis and gasification can be achieved at a low temperature of 350 C, thereby substantially avoiding the generation of dioxin. The solution process does not require any energy, so this is a new technology for environmental protection and energy saving.

Background technique

Traditional waste treatment methods mainly include landfilling and incineration. Landfilling will occupy a large amount of valuable land resources and pollute the environment (atmospheric, groundwater, etc.), so this simple treatment method is no longer basically used. Compared with landfill treatment, waste incineration is a better treatment method. Through incineration, not only the volume is greatly reduced, but also the heat generated by the incineration can be used to generate electricity and heat to achieve the purpose of energy reuse. Therefore, the incineration technology has become a waste treatment technology commonly used at home and abroad. However, there are still many problems with direct waste incineration, such as: (1) secondary pollution; acid gases (HCl, HF, NOx, etc.) generated by the incineration of organic substances in the waste components; highly toxic chlorine-containing polymer compounds (collectively referred to as dioxins) Substances) and fly ash containing Hg and Pb will cause pollution to the environment. (2) Damage to incineration equipment; the chlorine-containing compounds in the garbage form corrosive gases such as HCl in the furnace, and the metal components in the furnace will be severely corroded above 300oC. (3) The composition of waste is complex, and different components have different densities, shapes, chemical properties, ignition and combustion characteristics. They show different combustion characteristics in the incinerator, so it is difficult to control the combustion process. In order to overcome the above-mentioned waste incineration technology, Disadvantages, waste pyrolysis technology as an alternative technology to waste incineration has been developed and applied. In fact, pyrolysis technology has a long history of application in industrialization. The earliest application was pyrolysis of wood and coal to produce products such as charcoal and coke. With the development of the application of this technology, pyrolysis is also used in heavy oil and Gasification of coal.

Pyrolysis, also known as dry distillation, thermal decomposition or carbonization, refers to the process in which organic matter is heated in the absence of oxygen or oxygen to decompose it. That is, pyrolysis is the process of using the thermal instability of organic matter to break the compound bond of the compound under the condition of no oxygen or lack of oxygen, and convert the organic matter with large molecular weight into small molecular weight combustible gas, liquid fuel and coke. . The similarity between pyrolysis and incineration is that both are thermochemical conversion processes. But they are two completely different processes. The main differences are: (1) the products of incineration are mainly CO 2 and H 2 O, and thermal The decomposition products are mainly flammable low-molecular compounds, gaseous are H 2 , CH 4 , CO; liquids are methanol, acetone, acetic acid, acetaldehyde and other organic matters; tar and solvent oil; solids are mainly coke or carbon black. (2) Incineration is the oxidation reaction of carbon and hydrogen, which is the main combustible substance in solid waste. It is an exothermic process, while pyrolysis is an endothermic process. It needs to absorb a large amount of heat to decompose organic compounds. (3) The incineration of plutonium can use the generated heat for power generation or heating, and the product of pyrolysis is that the fuel gas and fuel oil are renewable and easy to store and transport.

The present invention "magnetized air pyrolysis furnace for solid waste treatment" is a pyrolysis device based on the principle of gasification pyrolysis.

The purpose of this project is to provide a novel pyrolysis device for solid waste treatment. It consists of a furnace body, a deodorizer, an air introduction system and an electrical control box. The solid waste is input into the processing chamber from the input port of the furnace body, and the fan introduces air into the furnace body through the magnetizer. After being ignited, the combustibles (such as paper, board, wood chips, etc.) in the solid waste are ignited under the action of the magnetized air entering the furnace, which makes the furnace warm up. In the treatment room, the combustibles and some of the solid waste The flammable products produced by pyrolysis are placed in a reducing atmosphere and partially burned to release heat. This heat is used to completely pyrolyze and gasify the organics in the solid waste. Since there is no stirring effect like in a direct-fire type incinerator, very little fly ash is generated. Pyrolysis gasification products and a small amount of fly ash are catalyzed by platinum in the deodorizing cylinder, so that the dust in the gas discharged from the flue is extremely limited, so no special dust removal device is needed, and it is sufficient to meet the most stringent dust emission regulations. . Here, the catalytic action of a platinum catalyst is used to purify gaseous pollutants. The principle is to convert harmful substances in exhaust gas into harmless substances or substances that are easy to remove. The advantage of this method is that it is not necessary to separate the harmful gas from the main gas stream and directly convert the harmful gas into a harmless substance, which can avoid secondary pollution and simplify the operation process. Here, in the deodorizing cylinder, the exhaust gas is heated under the action of a platinum catalyst, and a catalytic combustion reaction occurs. Carbon monoxide generated by pyrolysis and a variety of hydrocarbons react to generate carbon dioxide and water: (CO + HC = CO2 + H2O). The gas discharged from the deodorizing cylinder completes the purifying effect. The pyrolyzed organic residues and non-combustible materials (such as glass, metal, ceramics, etc.) in the solid waste are discharged from the lower outlet 7 of the furnace body together. In order to increase the proportion of H2 in solid waste and increase the calorific value of gas products, a water vapor generator 17 is provided in the furnace body to generate a certain amount of water vapor, so that the carbon and water vapor in the solid waste undergo a water-gas reaction to generate CO and H2 and a small amount of CO2, thereby improving the pyrolysis efficiency. Since the superheated steam generator is located at the upper part of the processing chamber, the upper part of the solid waste put into the processing chamber can also generate a pyrolysis reaction. Here, CH4, H2, and CO can be used as a reducing agent to perform catalytic reduction reaction with NOX to remove the harmful acid gas NOX. The key point of this device is the effect produced by the magnetization of the air introduced into the furnace body through the magnetizer 12. We know that although oxygen is a molecule with an even number of electrons, it still has a stable inherent magnetic moment and is a paramagnetic substance with a large magnetic susceptibility. When the external magnetic field is zero, molecular magnetic moments are randomly oriented due to the effect of thermal temperature. Under the action of the external magnetic field, the molecular magnetic moment will be oriented with the external magnetic field, and the molecular polarity tends to be parallel to the external magnetic field and strengthen the magnetic field, so the activation energy of oxygen in the air magnetized by the magnetizer 12 is greatly increased. In this way, the amount of air entering the furnace body can be small to the extent that partial combustion cannot be maintained without magnetization, but stable partial combustion can be maintained after magnetization. Reducing the amount of air used to burn the garbage can reduce the combustion gases generated by the combustion, thereby reducing the combustion dust. What's more, the specially treated magnetized air entering the processing chamber can indirectly magnetize the solid waste being processed. Under the effect of magnetic energy, the intermolecular cohesion in the organic components of the solid waste being processed is reduced. , Thus improving the effect of pyrolysis. In addition, due to the small amount of air introduced, a low pyrolysis temperature, about 350 C, is maintained during normal and stable pyrolysis in the processing chamber. We know that in the thermochemical reaction of incineration and pyrolysis, the concentration of dioxin is related to the reaction temperature. When the reaction temperature is between 700 C and 850 C, the concentration of dioxin is the highest. Therefore, the device uses magnetized air to pyrolyze the gas at a low temperature of 350 C, thereby substantially eliminating the generation of dioxins. This is another advantage that this unit is different from any traditional pyrolysis unit. In contrast, in conventional pyrolysis technology, the pyrolysis temperature is 45 C to 750 C.

The magnetizer 12 is equipped with a permanent magnet having a strong magnetic field. The permanent magnet may be a ferrite with a high cost performance, or a hard magnetic material such as an Alnico magnet or a rare earth magnet. A plurality of independent magnets are placed around the air passage. In this way, each magnet can generate a magnetization effect on the air, so that a better magnetization effect can be achieved.

Pyrolysis unit description

1 Small and medium magnetized air pyrolysis device

The processing capacity of this type of pyrolysis furnace is between 0.5 to 10 tons, which can be used for on-site reduction and disposal of waste from enterprises, hotels, residential quarters, hospitals, schools, sports fields, and exhibitions. Waste pyrolysis products are not recycled. As an environmental protection and energy saving device, the volume of solid waste can be reduced to 1/100 in 3–4 hours; 1/300 in 6–8 hours; and 1/3000 – 1/5000 in 30 hours. Can feed at any time.

2 Large-scale magnetized air pyrolysis device

The large magnetized air pyrolysis device has a capacity of more than tens of tons and replaces the waste incinerator for municipal waste treatment. With the development of human society, among the components of municipal waste, inorganic components have become less and organic components have increased. Therefore, the pyrolysis technology is used for the resource treatment of solid waste and the manufacture of renewable fuels, which undoubtedly becomes a promising solid Waste treatment methods. The use of large-scale magnetized air pyrolysis device is no longer simply processing and eliminating garbage. At the same time, it also focuses on the recycling of energy and other resources in urban garbage, and achieves the comprehensive effects of environmental protection, energy saving and resource recycling.

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